These cookies are used to track visitors across websites. The intention is to display ads that are relevant and engaging for the users. These cookies are needed in order to better understand how this site is used and to improve the user experience. Experimental Protocol. Tobacco leaves were inoculated by CMV-infected leaf homogenate and healthy leaf homogenate, respectivley.
Six time points with different symptom stage were selected, and one virus-infect sample and one mock-inoculated sample were collected at each time. In order to average out variation of different plants, five leaves from five different plants were mixed to prepare every RNA sample. Twelve individual tag libraries of samples six infected samples and six mock-inoculated samples were constructed in parallel.Growing tobacco, harvest and drying
For the gene expression analysis, the twelve samples were grouped into six groups, and each group contained a virus-infected sample and a mock-inoculated sample collected at the same time. In each group, the DGE data of virus-infected sample were compared to that of mock-inoculated sample to obtain the gene expression variations.
Illumina sequencing of transcripts from virus-infected and mock-inoculated samples to get gene information for tobacco leaves in different symptom stages. In order to get more gene information, the systemically infected leaves and mock-inoculated leaves were harvested at six time points and five leaves from five different plants were collected at each time point.
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In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations.
Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely.
In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known.
In the 21 st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products.
A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. For ages, tobacco has been popular and its use is significantly increasing in spite of alarming health hazards. However, so far a lot has been known about its disadvantages, but still tobacco is grown, developed, advertised, marketed, and sold to earn a big chunk of the financial cake. It is one of the great sources of revenue for the government as excise duty.
Many research works in different countries have emphasized potential detrimental effects of its use on almost all systems of living beings, in whatever form it is used. Many times articles are published in the newspapers, to develop awareness of its effects.
Likewise, smokers are 1. Where from, in what form, and how these leaves of the noxious plant gained popularity and made the mankind addictive is to be known.
Although much has been known by now but knowing the history of tobacco is also necessary. Tobacco is derived from the leaves of the genus Nicotiana, a plant from the night-shade family, indigenous to North and South America.
Archeological studies suggest the use of tobacco in around first century BC, when Maya people of Central America used tobacco leaves for smoking, in sacred and religious ceremonies.
It then later started spreading as far as high up to the Mississippi Valley with the Maya community migrating from down south of America, between and AD. Gradually, it was then adopted by neighboring and native tribes. Simultaneously, people practicing medicine also started using tobacco in different forms to cure certain illnesses such as asthma, earaches, bowel problems, fever, sore eyes, depression, insect bites, burns, etc.
By the time Columbus and his successors documented tobacco in other countries, the natives started useing tobacco in pipes, cigars, and snuff. Subsequently, Portuguese and Spanish sailors helped to spread different forms of tobacco to be used, around the world. Today, tobacco is used in various forms in different parts of the world. Tobacco in many countries is sometimes adopted as a cash crop by the farmers and government treasuries excise, taxes, etc. In South and Southeast Asia, it is incorporated into existing traditional customs, in the form of betel quid paan chewing.
The tobacco industry provides thousands of jobs, and is also a major source of income for the advertising industries, printed and electronic media, government for revnew and as a source of foreign currency. The smoking form of tobacco, since its introduction in South Asian countries, has been used in several forms, like hukka water pipechilam clay pipecigarettes, rolled tobacco in the form of bidees, Chchuta reverse smokingetc.
In Indonesia, tobacco is mixed with clove and dipped in the oral cavity.
Paan acquired significant popularity among the male population of the central and western India in contrast to female of these locations. Contrary are the findings in Bangladesh, with educated or uneducated females consuming more paan preferably with tobacco. According to a survey report, tobacco-consuming females in Bangladesh believe that this helps them in concentrating more on their work.
The survey also states that a large population believes that paan strengthens their teeth and eliminates bad breath. Tobacco use has multifactor influences. Despite increasing public awareness of risks associated with tobacco use and education programs to discourage its use, cigarettes and alcohol are both considered as significant risk factors for a multitude of health consequences from the long-term use of either of these two.
There is a direct or an indirect influence of culture on tobacco use as some individuals having an inherited factor later become nicotine dependent.
Boys see their grandfathers or fathers smoking, so they think it is part of being a man.Federal government websites often end in. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. The site is secure. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Accessed Skip to main content. Public Domain. Bugwood Images. Extended Metadata:.
Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. National Institute of Food and Agriculture. United States. IPM Images. Department of Agriculture U. United States databases data collection photographs forest pests barley canola corn cotton grain sorghum Sorghum Poaceae millets oats peanuts rye Carmanthus tinctorius soybeans sugarcane Helianthus annuus tobacco wheat vegetables fruits ornamental plants humans household pests pastures forage honey bees apiculture livestock crop management plant pathogens forestry wildlife natural resources plants botany fungi bacteria viruses Protozoa parasitoids predators Nematoda biological control leaves bark beetles phloem flowers mastication leaf rust epiphytes integrated pest management pest control phytophagous insects.Dataset Summary.
If you have a question or comment about ProteomeXchange, please contact us! Postharvest vegetative organs undergo a series of physiological and biochemical changes during senescence. However, if postharvest plant organs were not scientifically processed or cured, there would be a great loss in their commercial value during curing or storage. Thus, studying the molecular mechanisms underlying senescence of plant organs will enhance understanding of such a fundamental biological process and might provide new insights into controlling senescence and improving commercial value during curing or storage.
However, few studies have focused specifically on the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence affecting tobacco quality at the proteomic level during the yellowing stage. This study provides new insights into the postharvest physiology and molecular mechanism of senescence at the proteomic level in postharvest leaves of tobacco, a model solanaceous plant, in response to curing and senescence during the yellowing stage.We used the following datasets in the implementation of this project.
The herbarium dataset is comprised of high-resolution leaf images of 90, images, covering more than one quarter of all known plant species. The herbarium images are low-resolution photographs of a stemmed leaf against a white background.
Images in this dataset have no standardized size, alignment or positioning of leafs which makes it unfit for our classification algorithms. The dataset provides highly constrained leaf images against a white background where no stem is present. This dataset only covers 33 species with a single training image. We standardized dataset images prior to using them to train our classifiers. Images used on our algorithms have an aligned leaf image placed against a white background of by pixels.
Digital gene expression (DGE) of CMV-infected tobacco leaves
The leaf is positioned with its base at the bottom of the image. To obtain this result we had to strip the background from all original images, remove the stems of leafs and remove any noise present in the image. Some images had to be centered and rotated to have the base of the leaf at the bottom. Download our train datasets: Download processed herbarium dataset — 26 species with 10 training image per species Download processed flavia dataset — 33 species with one training image per species.
We created a set of 67 non-leaf training images of x pixels.
Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association
Objects are aligned and positioned against the same white background used in the leaf images. Download the Non-Leaf Image dataset — 67 images of random objects.
The complete herbarium dataset contains species with training images per species. We reduced our training set to 23 species with 10 training images each due to computational resources.
Blog at WordPress. Pless's CSE Dataset 1: Herbarium Dataset The herbarium dataset is comprised of high-resolution leaf images of 90, images, covering more than one quarter of all known plant species. Pre-Processing of Training Images We standardized dataset images prior to using them to train our classifiers. Download our train datasets: Download processed herbarium dataset — 26 species with 10 training image per species Download processed flavia dataset — 33 species with one training image per species Non-Leaf Images We created a set of 67 non-leaf training images of x pixels.
Download the Non-Leaf Image dataset — 67 images of random objects Images and Matlab The complete herbarium dataset contains species with training images per species. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Latest Posts The Leaf Genie.
Content Content 1. Diseases - Fungal. Pests - Insects. See questions about Tobacco. Tobacco harvest. Tobacco plants. Tobacco flowers. Tobacco field. Tobacco flowering. Common Pests and Diseases Diseases. Brown spot on tobacco.
Data and Statistics
Closeup of brown spot. Alternaria; Brown spot on lower leaf. Symptoms of brown spot. Small, circular, target-like spots on lower leaves; lesions are usually surrounded by a bright yellow halo; lesions enlarge and coalesce; centers of lesions dry out and drop from leaf giving foliage a ragged appearance; if variety of tobacco being grown is susceptible to the disease then spots may also appear on stalks and suckers; if spots girdle stems then the plant may be killed. Disease emergence favors warm, wet weather; excessive fertilization can cause greater crop losses.
Management Rotating crop away from tobacco can help to reduce the levels of inoculum in a field; stalks and roots left after harvest should be removed and destroyed; control nematodes in the soil; ensure plants have adequate potassium available to promote vigorous growth. Tobacco seedlings infected with blue mold. Blue mold symptoms on tobacco. Blue-gray fungal growth is produced on the underside of the spots when the fungus is active. Blue mold symptoms on tobacco seedling. Circular patch of seedlings developing yellow leaves; seedlings in center may have leaves that have curled into a cup shape; fluffy blue spores developing on underside of leaves; distorted leaves; yellow lesions on leaves which may have blue mold growing on them.
Management Avoid over fertilizing tobacco crop and the use of overhead irrigation which created favorable conditions for the development of the fungus; applications of appropriate protective fungicides is usually necessary to control the disease in temperate and subtropical areas.
Frogeye leaf spot on tobacco. Disease symptom on infected leaves. Leaf spot symptoms. The pathogen infects all stages of crop even after the leaves are harvested. Initially the lower leaves exhibit brown, round lesions which resembles frog-eye shape generally of 2 mm in diameter with grayish center.
The disease spreads upwards.Federal government websites often end in. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. The site is secure. Predicting crop production in current and future environmental conditions, and studying the mechanisms of photosynthesis demand a more comprehensive leaf gas exchange model than the empirical models that are currently in use.
The 2DLEAF model includes 1 two-dimensional CO2, O2, and water vapor diffusion in the intercellular space schematized according to leaf anatomy, 2 CO2 assimilation by mesophyll cells, and 3 stomatal movements as a regulating factor.
The model was used in 1 studies of the effect of leaf anatomy stomatal aperture, stomatal density, internal leaf structure on photosynthesis and transpiration of soybean, tomato, cotton, tobacco, and 37 wild plants, 2 estimation of the leaf gas exchange components diffusion and assimilation for wild-type and transgenic tobacco leaves, 3 analysis of the leaf gas exchange of eight genotypes of Pima cotton.
Estimation of the anatomical, stomatal and biochemical components of differences in photosynthesis and transpiration of wild-type and transgenic expressing yeast-derived invertase targeted to the vacuole tobacco leaves. Plant, Cell and Environment20 8 United States Department of Agriculture. Accessed Skip to main content. Explore Data. Field Value Modified Creative Commons CCZero.
Pachepsky, Yakov. Pachepsky ars. Extended Metadata:.
Agricultural Research Service. Citation Text:. AgID: